To help you in understanding Monica’s innovative technology, we have prepared a list of expectations. If you have a question please contact us.

FHR Accuracy

In clinical studies it was shown that Monica AN24 rarely confuses MHR with FHR. Overall, possible MHR/FHR confusion was less than 0.36% compared to 8.9% for Doppler FHR1 2.

FHR Reliability

Monica AN24 and Novii do not work in all women all of the time. Failure is not based on BMI1 3 4, but can be influenced by electrode placement, patient movement and posture.


Monica AN24 and Novii  rarely insert false FHR values1. Like FSE, when FECG signal is lost no sound is generated and there is silence. If a FHR gap occurs for longer than 5 minutes the user should consider confirming FHR with another modality, or swapping to another modality, depending on the clinical situation.


Practice at preparing skin and placing electrodes/Patch is required before FHR and UC can be successfully monitored.

UC Detection

In clinical studies Monica AN24 successfully detected 87% of all contractions with respect to IUPC, compared to only 55% for TOCO5. Like TOCO, Monica UC does not indicate the contraction strength or hypertonus, and can introduce small false positive contractions when compared with IUPC.

1 Cohen WR, Ommani S, Hassan S, Mirza FG, Solomon M, Brown R, Schifrin BS, Himsworth JM, Hayes-Gill BR. Accuracy and reliability of fetal heart rate monitoring using maternal abdominal surface electrodes. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2012;91:

2 Bhogal K, Reinhard J. Maternal and fetal heart rate confusion during labour. British Journal of Midwifery. Vol 18, No, 7: 424-428. July 2010

3 Graatsma EM, Miller J, Mulder EJ, Harman C, Baschat AA, Visser GH. Maternal Body Mass Index Does Not Affect Performance of Fetal Electrocardiography. Amer J Perinatol 2010; 27(7): 573-577

4 Reinhard J, Hayes-Gill BR, Yi Q, Hatzmann H, Schiermeier S. The equivalence of non-invasive foetal electrocardiogram (fECG) to Doppler cardiotocogram (CTG) ultrasound during the 1st stage of labour. J Perinat Med. 2010 Mar;38(2):179-85.

5 Hayes-Gill BR, Hassan S, Mirza FG, Ommani S, Himsworth JM, Solomon M, Brown R, Schifrin BS, Cohen WR. Accuracy and Reliability of Uterine Contraction Identification Using Abdominal Surface Electrodes. Clinical Medicine Insights: Women's Health 2012:5 65–75